Throughout the late 20th century, Afghanistan was wrecked by a political instability, civil conflict, and international interference. Soviet forces occupied the counrty in 1979, but failed to defeat a determined rebellion by Mujaheddin fighters and eventually withdrew in 1989. That conflict lead to civil war as political and economic interests had broken the Mujaheddin union into competing parties. Popular frustration at the lawlessness, corruption, and the absences of peace allowed a new militant Islamic movement known as the “Taliban” to emerge in the south of the country. By 1996 Taliban fighters had captured Kabul, and by 2000 had gained control of around 95% of the country. Only the northeast, west, and certain areas in the center remained in the hands of the opposition, Northern Alliance. A major turning point came with the terrorist attacks of 2001. The US blamed Osama bin laden and his al Qaeda network, which had established a significant enigma in Afghanistan and had developed close ties with the Taliban leadership. International orders for Osama bin laden to be handed over to the USA were rebuffed by the Taliban, causing the US to lead military operations in early October. By December 2001 the northern alliance backed by union airpower and Special Forces, had driven the Taliban and its al Qaeda allies from power although significant members of both found shelter in the eastern and southern regions of Pakistan. From there they have continued to build up activist and terrorist attacks across the country. Opposing afghan parties reached an agreement in December 2001 on a temporary government structure for the country, pending the establishment of a permanent broad based representative and democratically elected government. The Bonn agreement set out the process for drafting a new constitution and holding presidential and parliamentary elections. The constitution was agreed on in January 2004 and President Hamid Karzai was elected in October of that year. The UN mandated international security assistance force (ISAF) to provide security and to control the Taliban. Due to inner conflict, the Soviet Union invaded in December of 1979. But the Mujaheddin, who were receiving significant financial and military assistance from the United States, China, and the Arab states fought back. The Soviet Union tried there best in invading Afghanistan but he Mujaheddin kept fighting back. The Soviet Union withdrew in February of 1989. An estimated 1.3 million Afghanis had been killed and 4.5 million had fled the country. The soviet losses were estimated at 15,000 casualties with 50,000 wounded. The Soviet Unions withdrawal led to hopes of an immediate end to the conflict, instead the issue escalated into a civil war. As civil war broke out, ethnic, political, and economic interests had broken the Mujaheddin union into competing parties. Kabul fell in the Mujaheddin power in April of 1992 and a new movement, the Taliban, appeared on the scene in the south. First seizing control of Kandahar and then the surrounding provinces. The movement took its name from its members, many of whom were drawn from the Islamic theology schools that had been established in afghani refugee camps in northeastern Pakistan during the 1980’s. The Islamic Taliban leadership presented itself as helping to get rid of all the conflict that the country faced after Soviet withdrawal. Due to popular frustration the Taliban quickly rose to power and stardom. And its forces were able to capture 9 out of 30 provinces by February of 1995. The movement received strong backing from Pakistan and its strong influential interservice intelligence agency (ISI), which assisted in the recruitment of members and provided weaponry and training and technical assistance. In September 11, 2001 Osama bin laden planned a terrorist attack on the USA, with the Taliban and the al Qaeda network. In 2009 president Obama made a decision to over throw the Taliban, and end the terrorism of the Taliban. Brining peace to the world and stabilizing the government of Afghanistan. Since then the USA has been trying to efficiently and effectively eradicate the Taliban who have turned from a civil army to a terrorist organization. Just like a bad apple in the bunch has to be removed before it soils the rest, the Taliban must be wiped out before it can cause further damage to the world. The USA’s nature in the issue of Afghanistan and the scope of its interest is to successfully bring this war to an end. What started with the US militaries Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), alongside the UK militaries “Operation Herrick” as a result of the 9/11 attacks has now become a full pledged counterinsurgency effort. The US has many roles other then just to end the war in Afghanistan. The USA must first and foremost capture the head of the Taliban. Without the leader of the terrorists captured there will be no way that the world can be rid of this undesirable disease. Then the USA must help establish a government for the country with a constitution, which models that of the worlds finest. With a new afghan government under the power of President Hamid Karzai, the USA now sets a new goal to make that government a more stable and politically strong government which is capable of maintaining control of its people. Along with building their government the USA plans on helping to build and train the afghani army. Due to years of conflict that the country has endured, the people of Afghanistan have been forced to move from their homes and have now become refugees. The USA’s position on the refugees in the country and its bordering countries is to work in collaboration with the UN and help establish safe refugee camps, and in the near future a permanent location for the civilians who were forced to leave their homes because of unsafe conditions. This will be part of the USA’s reconstruction plan for Afghanistan, which the congress has granted 2.3 billion dollars along with one billion dollars for NATO led international security forces. Alongside NATO the USA must also follow the role of repelling and suppressing anti-USA attacks, this must be done in order to guarantee future security and peace. Although the US had been able to stop anti-USA attacks, restarting from May of 2006 the attacks have begun once again. This is a must in order to assure future relationships between the USA and Afghanistan. With the aid of the resurgence of 30,000 troops that president Obama has made, the USA military must suppress rebellious oppression and prevent anymore future violence that can and will be made from terrorist organizations such as the Taliban and al Qaeda. It is necessary to stop future terrorist activity for the common security of the land and the safety of the people. We must also strengthen our defenses inorder to prevent anymore breakouts, in response to the event that occurred in June of 2008. At which time Taliban fighters freed 1200 prisoners including 400 Taliban prisoners of war, in an assault on a Kandahar jail. With Afghanistan being responsible for more then 90% of the worlds illegal opium production, the UN must help to seize further production of the drug which most likely is used to financially help the terrorists along with helping them gain weapons through illegal trade. Eliminate the source of their finical power and they will slowly start to crumble. But the USA’s biggest role in Afghanistan is to successfully bring this war on terrorism to a conclusion. In conclusion the role of the USA in Afghanistan is to successfully eradicate the terrorist network established in Afghanistan. Not only from a frontal approach but an approach from every single side, from their government stand point to their financial power. The USA and NATO must come together under article 5, stating that an attack on one member nation is an attack on all, to grab the disease of terrorism from the root and pull it out of existence.

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